Elucidating the mechanism of cellular uptake and removal

These characteristics influence cellular uptake and toxicity.Some particulate forms of Ni are carcinogenic and are directly and rapidly endocytized by cells.

Enhanced values of the RBE and H ratio for cytogenetic effects induced by secondary electrons from an X-irradiated gold gurface. A series of studies conducted in the 1980’s observed this process, and we have reanalyzed the results of these studies to help elucidate the molecular mechanism of particulate Ni uptake.Originally the process of uptake observed was described as phagocytosis, however in the context of recent research we hypothesize that the process is macropinocytosis and/or clathrin mediated endocytosis.Many reports have shown that the cellular uptake of nanoparticles depends on their size experiment, cells are immobilized at the bottom of a culture plate or on a substrate placed at the bottom of a culture plate, and incubated with a suspension of nanoparticles.The nanoparticles are assumed to be well-dispersed in the culture medium due to diffusion (or Brownian motion) and thus, the concentration of nanoparticles at the cell surface is the same as the initial bulk concentration.There have been increasing interests in applying gold nanoparticles in biological research, drug delivery, and therapy.

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